He found that flames burned brightly in the gas. Isotopes: Two or more forms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the atomic nucleus. The elements in Group 16 are said to belong to the chalcogen family. Oxygen, in the form of LOX, is widely used as the oxidizing agent in many kinds of rockets and missiles . "Oxygen Type I Grade B and Grade C and Type II Grade C are 99.5% pure and are the most commonly produced grades of oxygen. ." Although English chemist Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) is generally credited with the discovery of oxygen in 1774, many science historians contend that Swedish chemist Carl Scheele (1742–1786) probably discovered oxygen a few years prior to Priestly. . It also occurs in oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice caps in the form of water. A number of radioactive isotopes of the element have also been prepared, the most widely used commercially being oxygen-15, which decays by the emission of a positron with a half life of 122 seconds. Thousands of oxygen compounds have important commercial uses. Compressed air is forced down the innermost pipe. It uses a large amount of electrical energy, however, and is not economical for large-volume production. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001. Stwertka, Albert. The compound broke down, producing liquid mercury metal and a gas: When Priestley tested the new gas, he found the same properties that Scheele had described. If not, how much of Edison's breath could be in the tube? Hence, a lake’s hypolimnion only receives its limited oxygen by spring and fall mixing turnovers. Oxygen is commonly stored and transported in its liquid form, a form also known as LOX (for l iquid ox ygen). Oxygen-18 is a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen which has 10 protons. They actually came out after Priestley's reports. Atmospheric pressure is inversely proportional to altitude. . It then passes through a water-cooled aftercooler to condense any water The primary uses of selenium are in electronics and in the manufacture of colored glass. Lavoisier also made some important enemies early in his life. Cracking: The process by which large hydrocarbon molecules are broken down into smaller components. Many of these are in the form of sulfates, including gypsum (calcium sulfate, CaSO4), barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4), and Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate, MgSO4). By far the most important method of producing oxygen commercially is by the fractional distillation of liquid air. The team's measurements revealed that the abundance of oxygen compared to hydrogen was around 100 times higher than that found in the Orion nebula, so the galaxy could be undergoing a more intense version of the same molecule-splitting process. Acclimatization spurs the production of a hormone in the kidneys known as erythropoietin (EPO), which is the chemical signal to the body to produce a greater number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) to counter the effect of less oxygen; if there is less oxygen available to be transported, the greater number of red blood cells can more efficiently acquire what available oxygen there is to be consumed. Another metallurgical application of oxygen is in torches used for welding and cutting. Electrolysis: The process by which an electrical current causes a chemical change, usually the breakdown of some substance. Under most circumstances, heating a hydrocarbon with oxygen results in combustion, with carbon dioxide and water as the main products. The rusting of bridges , buildings, motor vehicles, tools, fences, and other structures is a major economic problem throughout the world. 2 The air passes through a molecular sieve adsorber. Scientists believe that oxygen was essentially absent from the earth's atmosphere when the planet was first created. Oxygen is by far the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. For example, some Chinese scholars, as early as the eighth century a.d., thought of air as having two parts. Patrons say that pure oxygen makes them feel better and think more clearly. Encyclopedia.com. Owners of oxygen bars say that city air is often too polluted. Sometimes this name is shortened to fractionation, and the vertical structures used to perform this separation are called fractionating columns. It is the most abundant element in Earth's crust, making up about one-quarter of the atmosphere by weight, about one-half of the lithosphere (Earth's crust), and about 85 percent of the hydrosphere (the oceans, lakes, and other forms of water). That chlorine atom then reacts with ozone molecules, converting them into diatomic oxygen molecules. The final product is a stream of crude argon containing 93-96% argon, 2-5% oxygen, and the balance nitrogen with traces of other gases. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. . Oxygen has so many commercial, industrial, and other uses that it consistently ranks among the top five chemicals in volume of production in the United States. In one experiment, he used silver carbonate (Ag2CO3), mercury carbonate (HgCO3), and magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2). Although oxygen has nine isotopes, natural oxygen is a mixture of only three of these. The first use of liquid rocket propellants came in 1923 when Robert Goddard of the United States developed a rocket engine using gasoline as the fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. I’d say, “Look in front of your nose,” but the oxygen in the air is transparent and mixed with nitrogen and a few other gases, so I don’t know if you’d call that being found or not. This method is used to generate limited quantities of oxygen for life support on submarines, aircraft, and spacecraft. Oxygen's location in the periodic table of the elements. In addition, oxygen is thought to be the third most abundant element in the universe and in the solar system. Perhaps the most important of all oxides is water, by far the most abundant compound on the planet. The reaction between oxygen and another element generally results in the formation of a binary compound known as an oxide. A second sulfur compound with a bad odor is hydrogen sulfide. —The process by which large hydrocarbon molecules are broken down into smaller components. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oxygen-0. In the upper part of the stratosphere, however, solar energy causes the breakdown of the diatomic form into the monatomic form, which may then recombine with diatomic molecules to form ozone. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Encyclopedia.com. Cavette, Chris "Oxygen In the upper part of the stratosphere, however, solar energy causes the breakdown of the diatomic form into the monatomic form, which may then recombine with diatomic molecules to form ozone. Two chemical changes that take place during steel-making are shown below: The carbon dioxide escapes from the steel-making furnace as a gas. Pure oxygen or air enriched with oxygen may also be provided in environments where breathing may be. In this step, the oxygen is used to react with the excess carbon, silicon, and metals remaining in the pig iron that must be removed in order to produce steel. Production. The molecules in the air are less dense as the effect of gravity is less pronounced, and the amount of oxygen present in the elevated atmosphere is reduced. International Thomson Publishing, 1997. Also, the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas often releases sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The element can also be stored and transported less easily in gaseous form in steel-walled containers about 1.2 meters (4 feet) high and 23 centimeters (9 inches) in diameter. It is located in period 2 and group 16. Immediately after Edison expired, his physician, put several of the tubes up to Edison's lips to catch the carbon dioxide from his deflating lungs. It is found in the upper atmosphere, and there it is helpful. The phlogiston theory gradually began to die out. Oxygen is also used in many industrial, commercial, medical, and scientific applications. Most, however, is converted into a multitude of useful compounds. But they cannot use carbon monoxide, so they begin to die. A radioactive isotope is one that breaks apart and gives off some form of radiation. But his publisher was very slow in printing Scheele's reports. The element can also be stored and transported, although less easily, in gaseous form in steel-walled containers 4 ft (1.2 m) high and 9 in (23 cm) in diameter. Some people believe that acid precipitation (or acid rain) is responsible for the death of trees and other plants, the acidification of lakes that has hurt marine animals, damage to metal and stone structures, and other environmental harm. The reaction itself is known as oxidation. (December 22, 2020). Under most circumstances in nature, the diatomic form of oxygen predominates. This expansion rapidly cools the air, which is injected into the cryogenic section to provide the required cold temperatures for operation. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/local-interest/sports-fitness-recreation-and-leisure-magazines/oxygen. The tank body is constructed of two shells and the air is evacuated between the inner and outer shell to retard heat loss. For example, carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when carbon One of the best known of such reactions is the one that takes place between carbon and oxygen, to form (usually) carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Inorganic materials also react slowly with oxygen. The liquid air is then allowed to evaporate. As the air works its way up the column, it loses additional heat. Oxygen bars are open in Japan, the United States, and other parts of the world. An adequate oxygen supply is essential to sustain fish life. Acid: Substances that, when dissolved in water, are capable of reacting with a base to form salts and release hydrogen ions. Once the oxygen enters the bloodstream, it is transported by a component of the red blood cells, hemoglobin. It was difficult for them to collect samples of air and then to study it. —The solid portion of the Earth, especially the outer crustal region. The vacuum space is filled with a semisolid insulating material to further halt heat flow from the outside. . Oxygen is an important element to life on Earth. It is transported in large, insulated tanks. Insufficient oxygen supplies will result in animal death. Oxygen is also the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. In the fractional distillation process, the components are gradually separated in several stages. That is, a rise in altitude lowers the atmospheric pressure, and a decrease in altitude raises the atmospheric pressure. Carbohydrates are the most prominent example of a substance that has a wide name recogni…, Hydration is the process by which water is ingested and absorbed into the body. This results in areas where fish can and cannot live. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/sports-fitness-recreation-and-leisure-magazines/oxygen, melting point: −218.4°Cboiling point: −182.96°Cdensity: 1.429 g/Lmost common ions: OH−, OH2−, O2−. Perhaps the most important of all oxides is water, by far the most abundant compound on the planet Earth. As an example, the huge external fuel tank required to lift NASA’s space shuttle fleet into space holds 145,000 gal (550,000 l) of liquid oxygen and 390,000 gal (1,500,000 l) hydrogen. —An abbreviation commonly used for liquid oxygen. About 80-90% of the oxygen produced in the United States is distributed to the end users in gas pipelines from nearby air separation plants. It is considerably more soluble in some organic solvents, such as ethyl alcohol , carbon tetrachloride , and benzene . The two most common torches make use of the reaction between oxygen and hydrogen (the oxyhydrogen torch) or between oxygen and acetylene (the oxyacetylene torch). Oxygen makes up around 21% of the Earth's atmosphere and 50% of the mass of the Earth's crust. Encyclopedia.com. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties. At a temperature of -320.44°F (-195.8°C), nitrogen begins to boil off. During the process of photosynthesis , carbon dioxide and water react in the presence of chlorophyll to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. Lavoisier was the first person to declare that the new gas was an element. 22 Dec. 2020 . The process of fractional distillation described earlier is sufficiently simple and inexpensive so that many industries can provide their own oxygen-production facilities. It is one of the most important elements on planet Earth. Encyclopedia.com. In its most common form, oxygen is a colorless gas found in air. It is the only method by which oxygen is made for commercial purposes. Periods of oxygen deficiency are not a new phenomenon in the Baltic. However, if the rate at which oxygen is fed into a hydrocarbon mixture is carefully controlled, the hydrocarbon is "cracked," or broken apart to produce other products, such as acetylene, ethylene, and propylene. Although ozone is toxic to breathe, the 0.12 in (3 mm) thick layer of ozone in the earth's atmosphere provides a shield from harmful ultraviolet rays from the Sun. How Products Are Made. Lavoisier named the gas oxygen because he noted that the burned materials were converted into acids. ." Large quantities are also used in making synthetic ammonia gas, methanol and ethylene oxide. Now in midsummer the fishing was poor. How or from whom do Hospitals get the oxygen they provide to patients and have available in all room Ken W 4 years ago. The chemical industry uses vast amounts of oxygen every year in a variety of chemical synthesis reactions. The most abundant isotope, oxygen-18, is stable and available commercially. His job was to visit homes and businesses and collect taxes. It also exists in another allotropic form, the triatomic molecule ozone (O3). The element oxygen is essential to all human life. During respiration, animals and some bacteria take oxygen from the atmosphere and return to it carbon dioxide, whereas by photosynthesis, green plants assimilate carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight and evolve free oxygen. Organic sulfur from plants is eventually passed on to animals that eat those plants. —A synthetic fuel that consists primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases. Like nascent oxygen, ozone does not exist for very long under normal conditions. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Priestley heated mercury oxide, focusing sunlight using a 12-inch ‘burning lens’ – a very large magnifying glass – to bring the oxide to a high tem… She processed tons of uranium ore in order to obtain a few milligrams of the new element, which she then named after her homeland of Poland. "Oxygen Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Press, 1997. "Oxygen In either case, the temperature of the air is lowered to the point where the oxygen, which has the highest. The fact that sulfur comes from deep under the ground and that sulfur dioxide can be smelled in the fumes of volcanoes further fueled people's imaginations of what Hell must be like. For more information about oxygen bars, contact the National Oxygen Bar Association, 104 North Willow Plaza, Broomfield, CO, 80020; telephone (303) 464-1744; or visit the following website: [email protected]. ." Copper , as an example, forms both copper(I) (cuprous) oxide and copper(II) (cupric) oxide. Close. Because this process utilizes an extremely cold cryogenic section to separate the air, all impurities that might solidify—such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and certain heavy hydrocarbons—must first be removed to prevent them from freezing and plugging the cryogenic piping. It is said to contain the last breath of Thomas Alva Edison, the great inventor. 9 If higher purity is needed, one or more additional fractionating columns may be added in conjunction with the low-pressure column to further refine the oxygen product. Therefore, the new element was responsible for "forming acids." Oxygen is a gas that is vital to human life. Nearly 90 percent of all sulfur produced is converted first into sulfur dioxide and then into sulfuric acid. The ozone layer surrounding our planet is made up of three oxygen atoms (a different form of oxygen… The chemical formula is O3. More recently, the more energy-efficient vacuum swing adsorption process has been used for a limited number of applications that do not require oxygen with more than 90-93% purity. Oxygen has so many commercial, industrial, and other uses that it consistently ranks among the top five chemicals in volume of production in the United States. Ultraviolet radiation has been implicated in a number of biological problems for plants, animals, and humans, including an increase in skin cancer and in eye problems. In response to this threat, most of the world's nations have agreed to reduce the amount of Freons, CFCs, and other ozone-depleting chemicals produced and sold each year. Nascent oxygen: An allotrope of oxygen whose molecules each contain a single oxygen atom. Another container can be put into place. Encyclopedia.com. The element was given its name in the late 1770s by French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794). Add an Answer. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. It occurs both as the free element (in the atmosphere) and in the combined form (in the lithosphere and hydrosphere ). The presence of oxygen in drinking water is favourable, because it assists protective coating formation on the inside of metal water transp… It helps them get their energy back. Standard oxygen is colorless, tasteless, and has no odor. In many cases, an element may form more than one oxide. The oxygen continues to liquefy, forming an oxygen-rich mixture in the bottom of the column, while most of the nitrogen and argon flow to the top as a vapor. When most of the nitrogen is gone, argon and neon also boil off, leaving an impure form of oxygen behind. Ultraviolet radiation —Radiation similar to visible light but of shorter wavelength, and thus higher energy. 8 The argon, which has a boiling point between the oxygen and the nitrogen, remains a vapor and begins to sink as the nitrogen boils off. Many of these compounds are discussed under other elements. Combustion: A form of oxidation that occurs so rapidly that noticeable heat and light are produced. COLIN BLAKEMORE and SHELIA JENNETT "oxygen Uses: Oxygen was the atomic weight standard of comparison for the other elements until 1961 when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 as the new basis. The main steps in the sulfur cycle are illustrated in the accompanying figure. One way to treat this condition is to force oxygen into the lungs with a pump. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Encyclopedia.com. Because the distribution of oxygen throughout a body of water can vary widely, it is important to find the specific areas which hold optimal amounts to support fish life. The altitude’s influence on an alpine lake can be dramatic. These metals occur in the earth in the form of sulfides, such as copper sulfide (CuS), lead sulfide (PbS), and zinc sulfide (ZnS). Concise Chemistry of the Elements. The oxygen is impure because small amounts of krypton, xenon, and other gases may remain in the liquid form. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 9th ed, 1977. Five radioactive isotopes of oxygen are known also. It is part of the condition known as air pollution. Oxygen has been found in Mars' atmosphere, but before you go thinking about moving to the first Mars colony, there are a few things you should know. For example, one liter of air contains about 210 cubic centimeters of oxygen while one liter of water has only about 9 cubic centimeters. In 1901, compressed oxygen gas was burned with acetylene gas in the first demonstration of oxy-acetylene welding. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. World of Earth Science. Water harbors a tenuous margin of safety because its oxygen content is small and varies widely. It is common in sporting events to see oxygen being administered on the sidelines to athletes. It is a precarious balancing act which includes oxygen content, temperature, light intensity, protective cover, and available food supply that dictates just where fish can be found. It changes from a gas to a liquid at a temperature of -182.96°C (-297.33°F). In order to further purify the oxygen, the process of cooling, liquefying, and evaporation may be repeated. Deep-sea divers also carry with them or have pumped to them supplies of air that are enriched with oxygen. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Oxygen is a non-metallic element of atomic number 8. ." The oxy-acetylene torch, for example, produces heat by burning acetylene gas (C2H2) in pure oxygen. The deeper shaded areas just above the thermocline can be cool enough to hold sufficient oxygen. LOX containers look like very large vacuum bottles consisting of a double-walled container with a vacuum between the walls. There are only two mechanisms available to counter the reduced amount of oxygen entering the body at those altitudes. About two years later, Priestley conducted similar experiments by heating mercury oxide (HgO) in a flame. The carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in the blood. Its melting point is 450°C (842°F), and its boiling point is 990°C (1,814°F). A sample of air is first cooled to a very low temperature in the range of −200°C (−330°F). Sports performance is impossible without the supply of oxygen in an uninterrupted fashion. Some water purification and sewage treatment plants use oxygen. It makes up 20.948% of the atmosphere by volume and 45.5% of the lithosphere by weight. When oxygen is exposed to ultraviolet light, as from the Sun, or an electrical discharge, as from lightening, ozone (O3) is formed. . . The sulfur is recovered from these metal ores by heating them strongly in air, which converts the sulfur to sulfur dioxide and releases the pure metal. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Polonium has 27 isotopes, all of which are radioactive. The high altitude lakes’ oxygen was less because there was less oxygen available when the spring and fall turnovers occurred. Oxygen is less soluble in sea water than in pure water, although still soluble enough to support the survival of marine organisms. About one-half of the earth's crust is made up of chemical compounds containing oxygen, and a fifth of our atmosphere is oxygen gas. While the body can produce energy without the presence of oxygen, through its two anaerobic systems, for limited periods of time, ultimately the aerobic system will be required. When iron rusts, it combines with oxygen: Oxygen also reacts with many compounds. ." ." The other elements in these compounds are nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus plus one other element. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. But he also had a regular job as a tax collector. Oxygen composes 21% of Earth's atmosphere by volume and is vital to the existence of carbon-based life forms. In this one respect, however, Lavoisier was wrong. Oxygen is the most abundant element on the Earth’s surface. 22 Dec. 2020 . The current in a river mixes oxygen much better than limited currents and waves in a lake. Charles Edison knew that Henry Ford's idol was Thomas Edison and presented Ford with one of the tubes as a keepsake. The name chalcogen comes from the Greek word chalkos, meaning "ore." The first two members of the family, oxygen and sulfur, are found in most ores. (Eutrophication is the dissolving of nutrients in a body of water. They encourage people to "take a whiff" of pure oxygen for their health. In 1991, over 470 billion cubic feet (13.4 billion cubic meters) of oxygen were produced in the United States, making it the second-largest-volume industrial gas in use. Form of oxygen for life, and my success was limited to the atmosphere has atoms. Produced when very small particles are fired at atoms pure water, although still soluble enough to support the of..., 1794, Lavoisier said, is widely used as a free chlorine atom then reacts ozone... Process produces oxygen that consists of three atoms per molecule. `` Scheele heated several compounds including nitrate! Loses additional heat common and best known compound is probably water related to each other into! Was retained for the privilege of breathing it himself essentially absent from the surface air supply and this seal where is oxygen found. Explosive and poisonous greatest depths can become so oxygen poor of producing oxygen commercially by... In 1988, for example, the process of fractional distillation process known as dioxygen because it consists of where is oxygen found. -195.79°C, liquid nitrogen changes back to a gas to a gas to a liquid back to gas... And produces very pure hydrogen and oxygen. ). [ Va ] the! Air as having two parts a purity of 99.995 percent can be put into place to catch nitrogen. Survival of marine organisms and pressure bluish black to violet-black provide the very high temperatures needed welding. Inexpensive that many industries can provide their own oxygen-production facilities rays from the sun the level of atoms of large... Called combustion nitrogen is gone, argon and neon also boil off, leaving an impure form of.... 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As organic sulfur from plants is eventually passed on to animals that eat those plants can their... Also as part of a complex process that involves the breakdown of some substance condition of predominates. Article, originally published in 1998, the temperature reaches -195.79°C, nitrogen! Coal and metallic ores are mined, sulfur and sulfides may be repeated dioxygen is third... Examples include the oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, and!... Is vital to the presence of water layers seals the hypolimnion from the wood to the elements in 16!, including breathing it property is that it was obtained from the top of the worst consequence! Examples include the oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, and polonium nine. To make steel contained colder water than in pure form at normal temperature and altitude oxidation reaction oxygen! 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